The following is a guide to citing sources using the name-year system of the Council of Science
Editors. For more explanation and further examples, see Scientific Style and Format: The CSE
Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers, 8th ed. (in the library at REF T 11 S386 2014). Also
see the CSE’s Scientific Style and Format Citation Quick Guide at
When you use another person’s ideas in your paper, even if you put them into your own words, you
must cite (i.e. credit) the source. Credit is given in two ways:
1) In-Text Citations are brief credits in the body of a paper
2) References provide all of the information needed to identify the sources cited in the paper.
References are given in a list, in alphabetical order, at the end of the paper.
Tips: ▪ The format examples in the table below describe the elements that may be included
when citing a particular type of source. (Some elements are optional).
▪ Sections numbers (such as 29.3.6) refer to relevant sections in the CSE’s Scientific Style
and Format manual.
▪ References end with a period. Do put a period after a URL.
▪ More tips are included in italics in the table.