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Artificial Intelligence

How to Properly Cite AI

APA suggests ensuring you describe how you used the AI tool in your research in a method section or comparable section of your paper.

APA also suggests that given that AI generated content like chats are not created by a person, that they cannot be considered personal communication. Instead, treat the content as an algorithm's output, and credit the author of the algorithm with a reference list entry and in-text citation.

You can also put the full text of long responses in an appendix or online supplemental materials.


Author. (Year of the Version). Title of the Tool (Version if applicable) [Tool description if applicable]. Source/URL


OpenAI. (2023). ChatGPT (Mar 14 version) [Large language model].

In-text Citation:

Parenthetical citation: (OpenAI, 2023)

Narrative citation: OpenAI (2023)

MLA recommends

  • citing a generative AI tool whenever you incorporate any content created by it into your own work
  • acknowledging any uses of the tool in a note or other suitable location
  • vetting any secondary sources it cites
  • not treating the AI tool as an author

Using the MLA Template


MLA does not recommend treating the AI tool as an author. This recommendation follows the policies developed by various publishers, including the MLA’s journal PMLA

Title of Source

Describe what was generated by the AI tool. This may involve including information about the prompt in the Title of Source element if you have not done so in the text. 

Title of Container

Use the Title of Container element to name the AI tool (e.g., ChatGPT).


Name the version of the AI tool as specifically as possible. For example, the examples in this post were developed using ChatGPT 3.5, which assigns a specific date to the version, so the Version element shows this version date.


Name the company that made the tool.


Give the date the content was generated.


Give the general URL for the tool.


 “Describe the symbolism of the green light in the book The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald” prompt. ChatGPT, 13 Feb. version, OpenAI, 8 Mar. 2023,

The Chicago Manual of Style does not have official recommendations for referencing generative AI, however, it does provide guidance on how to cite AI in your work.

Currently, Chicago treats the AI model as an author, and the format as a personal communication; therefore references to AI generated content are included in a footnote but not in a bibliography or reference list.


Bibliography or Reference List

Do not include.


1. ChatGPT, response to "Create a haiku in the style of Edgar Allen Poe," June 16, 2023, OpenAI,

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