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APA Style Guide

Secondary sources

  • Cite a secondary source when you do not have the primary source, or the original source of information
  • The document you have in hand and have read is the secondary source (e.g. Brock).
  • The work that has been cited in this source is the primary source (e.g. Gammie).
  • In the text of your paper, name the primary source, and give the citation to the secondary source. In the list of References, give the citation to the secondary source.

Brock, S. E. (2010). Measuring the importance of precursor steps to transformative learning. Adult Education Quarterly, 60, 122-142.

Parenthetical in-text: (Gammie, as cited in Brock, 2010, p. 122) 

Narrative in-text: Gammie’s study (as cited in Brock, 2010, p. 122) showed that …

Tip: Use secondary sources sparingly. It is better scholarly practice to use primary sources.

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Selkirk College acknowledges the traditional territories of the Sinixt (Lakes), the Syilx (Okanagan), the Ktunaxa and the Secw├ępemc (Shuswap) Peoples.
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