Skip to Main Content

APA Style Guide

Audiovisual media

Audiovisual media include audiovisual works (films, streaming videos), audio works (podcasts, radio broadcasts), and visual works (photographs, maps).

Tip: The author of an audiovisual work is determined by the media type. 

Media type

Include as the author



TV series

Executive producer(s)

TV series episode

Writer and director of episode


Host or executive producer

Podcast episode

Host of episode



Classical music album or song


Modern music album or song

Recording artist



Online streaming video

Person or group who uploaded the video




Author, A. (Director). (Date). Title of film [Film]. Production Company.

Cowan, P. (Director). (2008). Paris 1919 [Film]. National Film Board of Canada.

Parenthetical in-text: (Cowan, 2008)

Narrative in-text: Cowan (2008)

Streaming video

Author, A. (Director). (Date). Title of streaming video [Video]. Site name. URL

Officer, C. (Director). (2017). The skin we're in [Video].


Tip: Films from Kanopy,, and NFB (library databases) can be cited using this template

Parenthetical in-text: (Officer, 2017)

Narrative in-text: Officer (2017)

Films on Demand

Films on Demand. (2020). After truth: Disinformation and the cost of fake news. HBO.

          url= x?wID=79529&xtid=206150

Tip: The name of the director is not given in the database. Because Films on Demand is the uploader it is not necessary to also list it as the site name. HBO is the production company

Parenthetical in-text: (Films on Demand, 2020)

Narrative in-text: Films on Demand (2020)

YouTube video

Uploader, U. U. (Date). Title of streaming video [Video]. Site name. URL

TIP: The person or group (account) who uploaded the video is credited as the “author”. If a username is used also provide the author’s real name. Give the date (Year, Month Day) the video was uploaded

Fogarty, M. [Grammar Girl]. (2016, September 30). How to diagram a sentence (absolute basics) [Video]. YouTube.

Parenthetical in-text: (Fogarty, 2016)

Narrative in-text: Fogarty (2016)

TED Talk

TED. (2021, May 11). Adam Grant: What frogs in hot water can teach us about thinking again [Video]. YouTube. 

Parenthetical in-text: (TED, 2021)

Narrative in-text: TED (2021)


Robinson, K. (2006). Do schools kill creativity? [Video]. TED Conferences.   

Parenthetical in-text: (Robinson, 2006)

Narrative in-text: Robinson (2006)

Tip: When Ted Talks come from the TED website, use the name of the speaker as the author. When the TED Talk is from YouTube, list the owner of the YouTube account (ex. TED)

Podcast episode

Author, A. A. (Host). (Date). Title of episode (episode number) [Audio podcast episode]. In Title of podcast. Production company. URL

Heath-Rawlings, J. (Host). (2022, January 12). The long fight to bring a miracle drug to Canadians (No. 450) [Audio podcast

          episode]. In The Big Story. Frequency.


Parenthetical in-text: (Heath-Rawlings, 2022)

Narrative in-text: Health-Rawlings (2022)

Photograph or image - from a website

The Fair Dealing provision of the Canadian Copyright Act allows students to reproduce photographs and images from other sources in school assignments.

Label the image as a figure and provide a figure number and title above the image. Below the image, provide copyright attribution in the figure note (used instead of an in-text citation). The copyright attribution uses the same elements as the reference list entry, but in a different order (title, author, date, site name, URL). Include the name of the Creative Commons License if given.

Provide a reference list entry for the image.

See for more examples.

Photographer. (Date). Title of work [Description]. Name of website. URL

Pilz, P. (2019). Wolf in the forest [Photograph]. Unsplash.

Parenthetical in-text: (Pilz, 2019)

Narrative in-text: Pilz (2019)

Photograph - no title

Rinaldi, J. (2016). [Photograph series of a boy who finds his footing after abuse by those he trusted]. The Pulitzer Prizes.

Tip: If a photograph is untitled, provide a description in square brackets in place of a title

Parenthetical in-text: (Rinaldi, 2016)

Narrative in-text: Rinaldi (2016)

Feather Icon
Selkirk College acknowledges the traditional territories of the Sinixt (Lakes), the Syilx (Okanagan), the Ktunaxa and the Secw├ępemc (Shuswap) Peoples.
Selkirk College Logo